A five-year review of presentation and management outcome of acute testicular torsion in two Nigerian referral centres

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FE Ogbetere
SU Urube


Background: Acute testicular torsion (ATT) is a urological emergency that should be ruled out in patients presenting with acute testicular pain, particularly among teens and young adults. The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of presentation and management outcome of ATT in two Nigerian referral health facilities.

Methods: This was a retrospective study. Patients who were managed for ATT between January 2017 and December 2021 at the urology units of two hospitals in Nigeria were studied. During this period, 31 patients were treated for ATT. Twenty-two of them had complete medical records and were evaluated.

Results: The ages of the patients ranged from 12 to 30 years with a mean of 19.77 years. Approximately half of the patients (n = 10; 45.5%) presented after 24 hours of the onset of symptoms with the left testis being the most affected (n = 17; 77.3%). All patients presented with a history of testicular pain and had scrotal exploration. The intraoperative findings revealed a viable testis in 13 (59.1%) and nonviable testis in nine (40.9%) patients. Seven patients had a predisposing factor.

Conclusion: ATT is a time-dependent vascular accident commonly involving the left testis. Prior history of intermittent testicular pain is an important diagnostic marker in patients with equivocal clinical features. Immediate scrotal exploration, urgent testicular detorsion, and orchidopexy is the gold-standard treatment. Local anaesthesia is sufficient and time-saving. The testicular salvage rate is low due to delays in presentation and intervention.

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Author Biographies

FE Ogbetere, Edo State University

Department of Surgery, Edo State University, Nigeria

SU Urube, Federal Medical Centre

Department of Surgery, Federal Medical Centre, Nigeria